Section C progress check

1.vprasanje: Which often has the advantages of providing better response to customer wishes, lowering cost, speeding decision making, and helping to get people who are directly aware of problems more involved in solving them?
  1. Allowing customers to provide feedback in their own words
  2. Getting upper managers out on the shop floor on a daily basis
  3. Getting middle managers more involved in everyday decision making
  4. Allowing people further down the management structure to make decisions independently

D Allowing people further down the management structure to make independent decisions, or employee empowerment, can have all of the advantages listed in the question. The other answers may provide some but not all of these advantages.

2.vprasanje: Referring to the figure below, is the process producing parts that are within specifications, and if so, is there something worth investigation, nevertheless?
  1. No, they are not in specification because there is a shift in the mean.
  2. No, they are not in specification because the specification says 6mm ±0 01 mm.
  3. Yes, they are in specification and therefore the results do not require further investigation
  4. Yes, they are in specification but the shift in mean should be investigated as it could continue

D While the process is still within the specification limits of plus or minus 0,01 mm, there has been a shift in the mean for this set of observations. and this should be further investigated. It could be due to a worn part that needs replacing, for example. Note that "within specification" differs from the question of whether the process is "in control."

3.vprasanje: Which correctly identifies the following examples of costs as internal failure (I), external failure (E), appraisal costs (A), and prevention costs (P)?
  1. I. Product recalls = I; scrap and in-line inspections = E; loss of customers = A: machine maintenance and operator training = P
  2. m. Machine maintenance and in-line inspections = I; scrap and loss of customers = E; product recalls = A; operator training = P
  3. n. Scrap = I; product recalls and loss of customers = E; in-line inspections = A; machine maintenance and operator training = P
  4. o. Operator training= I; product recalls and loss of customers = E; scrap and machine maintenance= A; in-line inspection = P

C Scrap is an internal failure cost because it occurs without the customer seeing it Product recalls and loss of customers are external failure costs because the first is directly experienced by customers and the second is a direct customer reaction to poor quality In-line inspections are an appraisal cost because this is an example of a quality control activity. Machine maintenance and operator training are examples of prevention costs because these are investments designed to reduce the chances of quality problems occurring in the first place

Internal Failure (I) External Failure (I) Appraisal Cost (A) Prevention Cost (P)
Scrap X
Product recalls X
Loss of Customers X
Line Inspections X
Machine Maintenance X
Operator Training X

4.vprasanje: Using the total quality management definition of a customer, who is the production control department's most immediate customer?
  1. End users of products
  2. Central supply
  3. Shipping
  4. Production shop floor

D Total quality management identifies both internal and external customers, and internal customers are the people or departments who use one's outputs as their inputs. In this example; production control's most immediate customer is production itself

5.vprasanje: Which is recorded in control charts?
  1. Average of specification limits over time
  2. Root causes of process variation
  3. Range of each set of samples taken over time
  4. Mean of the results from product inspection

C Control charts provide information on the average and range of each set of samples taken over time. However, they do not record the results of inspections, as inspections occur on the final product; while statistical process control occurs at the work center level.

6.vprasanje: Which is an example of a special cause as opposed to a common cause of a variation in a process?
  1. Room temperature variations throughout the day
  2. Poorly trained operators
  3. Use of expired materials
  4. Poor process design

C Special causes can be isolated and assigned to a particular source and use of expired materials fits this description. Common causes are sources of variation that are inherent in a process such as poor process design, poor working conditions, poor operator training, or normal variations in room temperature. While both are subject to improvement, the special causes show up as spikes or dips on control charts and can be remedied quickly once the root cause is found, while common causes require more long-term process improvement activities

7.vprasanje: Which quality tool can help focus improvement efforts to resolve the most common customer complaints with the least investment of time and money?
  1. Check sheet
  2. Cause-and-effect chart
  3. Pareto chart
  4. Control chart

C A Pareto chart ranks the frequency of issues or problems from most frequent to least frequent so that improvement efforts can be focused to get the most impact from time and money spent on continuous improvements

8.vprasanje: A process has four steps in which each has a yield of 99.7 percent (within 3 sigmas or standard deviations) or a 0.3 percent chance of defective material. What is the probability of a defect for the final finished good?
  1. 0,3 percent
  2. 1,195 percent
  3. 3,988 percent
  4. 98,81 percent

B Multiplying the yields of each successive operation together shows the net yield 0,997 x 0,997 x 0,997 x 0,997 = 0 988054 or 98,81 percent (rounded). The probability of a defect is the complement, or 1 – 0,988054 = 0,011946 or 1,95 percent (rounded). This illustrates why six sigma promotes the need for high quality of steps above standard quality levels

9.vprasanje: Which is a good description of the purpose of a fishbone diagram?
  1. Cost buildup method
  2. Method to determine the root cause of a symptom
  3. Capability analysis
  4. Synonym for a Pareto analysis

B A fishbone diagram is another name for a cause-and-effect diagram, which is used as an aid in brainstorming ideas to identify root causes of a problem and to solve the problem

10.vprasanje: Which is the best way listed to improve quality at the source for manufactured parts?
  1. Applying as much automation as possible
  2. Inspecting all parts for known defectives
  3. Improving customer warranty coverage
  4. Reducing the variation in a manufacturing process

D Reducing variation in the manufacturing processes improves quality. Answer a is not correct because automation does not necessarily improve quality. Answer b is not correct because inspecting all parts is costly and does not improve quality at the source-it only catches defects that have occurred. Answer c is not correct because improving customer warranty coverage does nothing to ensure quality

11.vprasanje: Which best describes employee empowerment?
  1. Management is relieved of the responsibility for monitoring employee results.
  2. Employees are empowered to determine the specification limits for parts they make
  3. Line employees are given a certain degree of authority to make decisions
  4. Decision-making power is concentrated with more employees in the upper management group.

C Employee empowerment includes giving more authority to production workers to make decisions regarding production Answer a is not correct because management still needs to monitor employees' results.

12.vprasanje: Which is true regarding a Pareto analysis?
  1. It separates the significant few from the trivial many.
  2. It uses the five focusing steps.
  3. It arrives at the 80-20 proportions using statistics rather than being a rule of thumb.
  4. It assigns weighted costs associated with internal versus external failure costs.

A A Pareto chart separates the significant few from the trivial many by easily visualizing the most common occurrences.

13.vprasanje: Which system is unique in its focus on the reduction of defects by reducing variation?
  1. Lean
  2. Six Sigma
  3. ERP system
  4. Theory of constraints

B Six sigma focuses on the reduction of defects to no more than a statistical six sigma level, or 3 4 defects per million opportunities Answer

  • a, lean, focuses on eliminating wasteful activities-creating flow and continuous improvement.
  • c, ERP system, is an integrated business process system.
  • d, TOC, focuses on identifying and removing constraints that limit a system's ability to meet its goals.

14.vprasanje: Which best describes the define. measure, analyze, improve, control (DMAIC) methodology?
  1. Lean method for implementing the plan-do-check-action (PDCA) steps
  2. Six sigma method for implementing process improvements
  3. Lean method for justifying manufacturing expenses
  4. Six sigma methodology for determining how many defects per opportunity are acceptable

B DMAIC is a six sigma methodology for determining and solving root causes of issues and tracking their resolution over time

15.vprasanje: Which is a primary use of a control chart?
  1. Finding the highest frequency of an event
  2. Determining the specification limits
  3. Detecting special causes of variation
  4. Calculating the cost of implementing quality systems

C Control charts show the upper and lower limits of normal variation for a process and are used to detect special causes as opposed to random, or common. causes. Answer b is not correct, as control charts do not show specification limits. Instead, they show statistical control limits

16.vprasanje: Which statement is true?
  1. Cost buildup and storage add value to a product
  2. Value starts with the customer.
  3. Cost and value are synonyms
  4. Lean manufacturing means always having product ready for the customer.

B Value should be defined from the customer's point of view, and any activity that does not add value from the customer's point of view is waste Answer a is not correct because cost buildup and storage do not add value to the customer. Answer c is not correct because cost is the money a company expends to make the product, and value is customer's perception: thus they are not interchangeable. Answer d is not correct because if the product is always ready for the customer, then the company is maintaining finished goods inventory, which is a form of waste in lean.

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